History specialists, anthropologists, writers, journalists and others have portrayed Chitral as the most charming spot residing in the Hindukush mountains in the north-west of Pakistan with the indigenous Khowar-talking individuals proud for their hundreds of years old and one of a kind culture.
Chitral is circumscribed in the east with Gilgit-Baltistan, south-east Swat valley, north and north-east by China and the Wakhan corridor of Afghanistan, and in the west by the Nuristan and Kunar territories of Afghanistan. In the south of Chitral is situated the Upper Dir region of Khyber Pakhtunkha area.
When one enters Chitral through any of the two principle courses – Lowari Pass or Lowari Tunnel and Shandur Pass – the scenery welcomes the guest. Chitral is enriched with amazingly baffling and soak mountains, rich green valleys, lovely glades and tremendous glaciers. Chitral is separated into little valleys numbering around 35. The most critical and worth seeing of these sub-valleys are the Kalash valleys, Garam Chashma, Shishi Koh, Mastuj, Laspur, Yarkhun, Tor Khow and Mor Khow. The most elevated top in this scope of the Hindukush is Terichmir, which lies at a stature of 25,263 feet, only 36 miles away in the north-east of Chitral town. It is additionally called the royal residence of pixies. No mountain in the area is under 4,000 feet and more than 40 tops have an elevation of 20,000 feet.
Chitral lies at a rise of 4,900 feet from the ocean level. The total zone of Chitral is 14,850 square kilometers and this zone is arranged between 35 and 37 N scope and 71 and 22 and 74 E longitude.
In 1998, the number of inhabitants in Chitral was 318,689, and as indicated by most recent gauge it has crossed the sign of 500,000 now (2018).
The climate of Chitral is amazingly cruel and frosty in the winter and lovely in the mid year. The best season to visit the valley is from May to September. Temperatures in summer remain around 25 and 40 degrees Celsius while in the winters it dive underneath the freezing-point.
There are various famous places in Chitral, for example, Drosh, Ayun, Madaklasht, Arandu, Birir, Rumbur and Bumburate; Garam Chashma, Reshun, Booni. The Kalash valleys are the archive of one of the unique societies of the world. This culture relates back to a pre-notable age.
For the last two decades, Shandur, the world’s most noteworthy polo ground, has turned out to be famous all around the globe for the annual polo festival. Shandur is situated on the uneven region amongst Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan and its is around 100 kilometers from Chitral town and 40 kilometers from Mastuj in Upper Chitral.
The general population of Chitral are called Khow who have an extraordinary ethnic assorted variety. Previously, till the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Chitral used to be a free state. At the point when Pakistan appeared on the map, the state of Chitral was the first to proclaim accession to the newly formed country. In the year 1969, Chitral was merged into the Malakand division of the then NWFP as a settled area. Chitral lies at the intersection of old Chinese Empire, Indian Empire, the ex-Russian Empire and the previous Afghan kingdom. It got the eyes of the British Empire when subsequent to feeling the feeling of Russian peril, the British administration of India looked for new companions in mountainous range and the tribal belt. At that point Major John Bidulph went to Chitral in 1876 and informed the government of India about the utility of Chitral. So friendship between the British and Chitral began which brought about the famous incident of 1895.
From early ages, Chitral was an essential point on the exchange courses from northern Afghanistan (antiquated Bactria) and the Tarim Basin to the fields of Gandhara (in northern Pakistan), and the area close Jalalabad in eastern Afghanistan. Chitral all things considered remained an autonomous state for quite a long time with its own way of life and dialect. In the late nineteenth century it turned out to be a piece of British India. It was an independent state in 1947, which acceded to Pakistan in that year. The rule of the Mehtar reached an end in 1954 and the power was transferred to the political agent posted at Chitral. The state was merged into Pakistan in July 1969. The written history of Chitral is isolated into six ages as takes after:
The Achemeanian Empire of Persia was reached out to these locales amid 400 BC. Its in excess of two thousand years since this domain retreated however its matchless quality was so unequivocally settled that numerous Persian social characteristics are still practically speaking in Northern Areas and few sections of Chitral. In some valleys encompassing Chitral, for example, Wakhan, Shaghnan, and upper parts of Chitral individuals communicate in Persian dialect. Indeed, even Khowar, which is the local dialect of the neighborhood individuals (Khow), contains much obtaining from Persian.
Zoroastrianism, an Old Persian religion, has additionally abandoned a portion of its follows around there. Customs additionally tell about leaving of dead bodies unburied in collapses the wild or in the empty of trees. Such practices were particular in this religion. A celebration on 21st March (Nouroz) the main day in Persian schedule still wins in Chitral. It is praised in few valleys consistently. (Israr, Chitral a chronicled outline).
The Kushan administration set up its administer around there in 200 AD. In the second century Kanishka the most effective head of Kushan line had broadened his control all finished Northern India, presumably to the extent south Vindyas and everywhere throughout the remote locale up to Khotan past the Pamir pass.
The Chinese broadened their impact in the fourth century AD and stayed in control until the eighth century. The stone engraving of Pakhtoridini close Maroi alludes to Chinese run the show. Another engraving in Barenis alludes to the Kushans. As indicated by Sir Aurel Stien, the engraving says that Jivarman requested to make the related illustration of a stupa. Such shake carvings have made disarray for scholars like Buddulph and numerous others to trust that Chitral framed piece of the last Hindu Shahi leader of Kabul. It’s likewise trusted that the northern parts had grasped Islam before ninth century’s over when Arabs crushed Bahman, head of the nation. When of withdrawal of Arabs numerous individuals had acknowledged Islam. (Trinket, second Hindukush Cultural Conference, p.19-21).
In the eleventh century AD southern Chitral was attacked by the Kalash from Afghanistan, who involved the nation as far toward the North as Barenis town, while the upper parts were under another ruler Sumalik. Some Kalash rulers, for example, Nagar Shah and Bala Sing ruled southern Chitral from eleventh to thirteenth hundreds of years A.D.
In the start of eleventh century Shah Nadir Rais possessed southern Chitral and vanquished the Kalash. Shah Nadir Rais stretched out his domain from Gilgit to the present southern limits of Chitral. Rais family governed over Chitral for around three hundred years when Katur family succeeded them.
During the Rais rule in Chitral its limits stretched out from Narsut in the extreme south of the state to Gilgit in the east. The rulers had a effective council of chiefs of the local tribes to run the undertakings of the nation. The leader of this family additionally worked for spreading the message of Islam in the state.
There were no consistent state powers to defend the state boundries so the chiefs of the local tribes called every one of the people of their clans to fight for the state under the collective defence framework. The Mehtar (ruler) had well disposed relations with the leaders of encompassing nations. (Baig, Hindu Kush think about arrangement vol. two).
The Katur succeeded the Rais tradition in 1595. Muhtaram Shah I was the founder of Kature rule in Chitral, whose decedents governed over Chitral until 1969 when the State was converged as an area of NWFP.
During the lead of Amirul Mulk in 1895, Umra Khan the head of Jandool crossed the Lawari pass and attacked lower Chitral. Subsequently, there was wild battling in which the Mehtar of Chitral and British officers were attacked in Chitral fort for 42 days. Troops from Gilgit and Nowshera rescued the besieged fort and the British rule was extended over entire Chitral in April 1895. Shuja ul Mulk rose as the ruler after the war who ruled for a long time until 1936.
During the Pakistan development there was a war in Chitral for freedom. The general population upheld All India Muslim League with the then Mehtar Muzafarul Mulk additionally straightforwardly backing the Pakistan development. In May 1947, Muzafarul Mulk inform the Viceroy about his intentions to join the new state of Pakistan. The accession instrument was signed on November 7, 1947.